Beta endorphin interaction with three opioid receptors


Quantum Holopedia ~ Interaction between beta endorphin and mu opioid receptor after docking

Researchers from Indian College of Science and Technology at Andhra University, present beta endorphin neurotransmitter, its role in immune system enhancement, deceleration of cancer cell growth and induction of euphoria and relaxation as well as its interaction with Mu, Delta and Kappa opioids [1].

[1] Swathi Aluri and Ramana Terli, “Three dimensional modelling of beta endorphin and its interaction with three opioid receptors“, J. Comput. Biol. Bioinform. Res, 2012

Quantum Holopedia Research Subjects

based on Quantum Entanglement Quantum Spins and Quantum Teleportation effects

Quantum Holopedia ~ Proton Resonances, according to Global Scaling Theory, is the basis of all processes and composition of all structures in the universe and the logarithmic scale invariance of proton resonance spectrum is the origin of Global Scaling phenomenon. In Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometer, proton resonance is calculated as a chemical shift in relation to proton resonance of a standard molecule, typically TMS. ~ Step 1

Quantum Holopedia ~ GravitoElectroMagnetism is a set of formal analogies between electromagnetism and gravity. It provides entanglement between quantum and spacetime dimensions which then can be correlated during increased states of brain activity. ~ Step 2

Quantum Holopedia ~ 3D Holograms can be use as anatomical representations of a healthy human brain imaged by techniques including electroencdephalography EEG with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging DTI ~ Step 3

Quantum Holopedia ~ Quantum Computers operate using qubits values of which are in quantum superposition and which can be entangled with other qubits. The same quantum phenomena created in the laboratory are said to occur in the brain which leads to Quantum Brain Computation ~ Step 4

Quantum Holopedia ~ MultiUnit Activity MUA is a method of measuring the electrophysiological responses of multiple neurons using a microelectrode system ~ Step 5

Quantum Holopedia ~ Brain Computer Interfaces are the communication tunnels between brain and external device. Next are Brain to Brain interfaces that allow direct communication between brains through electromagnetic interfaces. ~ Step 6


Quantum Holopedia Research Subjects

Gyromagnetic Ratio

Quantum Holopedia Isotopes

1H ~> 42.57747892(29)
2H ~> 6.536
3He ~> −32.434
7Li ~> 16.546
13C ~> 10.7084
14N ~> 3.077
15N ~> −4.316
17O ~> −5.772
19F ~> 40.052
23Na ~> 11.262
27Al ~> 11.103
29Si ~> −8.465
31P ~> 17.235
57Fe ~> 1.382
63Cu ~> 11.319
67Zn ~> 2.669
129Xe ~> −11.777

Quantum Holopedia explains graphene carbon nanotube wormhole junctions

Schwarzites ~ New Super Carbon possibly better than Graphene

Quantum Holopedia ~ Graphene flake and a black hole holographic duality. (Courtesy: M Franz, University of British Columbia)

Quantum Holopedia ~ graphene wormhole connected with heptagonal defects bridges and a carbon nanotube

Quantum Holopedia ~ Graphene Wormhole

Quantum Holopedia ~ Holographic spacetime where 5D universe is recorded like a hologram on the 4D surface. Courtesy Bekenstein in Information in the HOLOGRAPHIC UNIVERSE

Quantum Holopedia ~ Entanglement Space-time Holographic Et S H

Quantum holography in a graphene

Graphene promises a relatively easy to assemble, as it does not require superconductivity, realization of Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev SYK model which is an important milestone in string theory as it provides a solvable quantum mechanical model for AdS/CFT correspondence conjecture. The key to this concept is that graphene flakes in the regime of strong disorder and magnetic field can exhibit quantum phase described by holographic duality to an extremal black hole in two dimensional anti-de Sitter space. This has been described by a complex fermion version of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev SYK model [1].

[1] Anffany Chen, et al., Quantum holography in a graphene flake with an irregular boundary, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, July 2018

Graphene wormhole

In the family of carbon allotropes, where its members constitute of sp2-hybridised carbon atoms and associated delocalised π-conjugated electronic structure, besides forms that purely consists of six-membered carbon rings such a graphene and carbon nanotubes, there exist structures that include differently sized carbon rings resulting in surfaces with Gaussian curvature [1]. Consequently, introducing carbon rings with fewer than six carbon members causes positive Gaussian curvature on the surface and enables formations such a buckyballs. On the other hand, higher sized carbon rings result in negative Gaussian curvature and give rise to structures that are called graphene wormholes.

Graphene wormhole consists of two graphene sheets where a set of heptagonal defects has been introduced in such a way that a round outwardly curved structure emerges from the graphene’s plane. This structure is called a wormhole bridge. Then, each of the bridges are connected by a carbon nanotube which radius, due to physical limitations, is much larger thatn its length [2].

Quantum Holopedia predicts that graphene wormholes are perfect candidates to investigates theories connected with quantum entanglement and teleportation.

[1] Michel Rickhaus, et al., “Chirality in curved polyaromatic systems“, Chem Soc Rev, Aug 2016

[2] Jan Smotlacha1, Richard Pincak, Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanostructures, Recent Advances in Graphene Research, October 2016

[3] J. González, J. Herrero, Graphene wormholes A condensed matter illustration of Dirac fermions in curved space, Nuclear Physics B, February 2010

[4] J. González, CARBON NANOTUBE NANOTUBE‐GRAPHENE GRAPHENE JUNCTIONS JUNCTIONS, presentation

Multidimensional Quantum Net within Schwarzites

Another profound family of structures that consists of negative Gaussian curvatures as a result of more that six membered carbon rings are materials called schwarzites proposed by Mackay and Terrones in 1991. Schwarzites are 3D structures that embody similar properties to graphene which the addition of extra dimension giving rise a wide range of new potential applications. These kind of structures have not been synthesized yet, however, a recent study by Braun et al. has developed a theoretical framework to generate schwarzites by growing them inside zeolite templates [2].

[1] A. L. Mackay and H. Terrones, Nature, 1991, 352, 762

[2] Efrem Braun, et al., “Generating carbon schwarzites via zeolite-templating“, PNAS, Aug 20

Holographic spacetime

Holographic principle in string theory is quantum gravity’s property that descripbes the projection of d-dimensional space on its lower dimensional boundary, ideally a lighlike boundary like a gravitational horizon. In 1998, Juan Martín Maldacena has discovered a realization of holographic principle through anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence [1] (illustration on the right), where a 5D highly symmetric anti–de Sitter spacetime described by string theory is projected on its boundry as an equivalent 4D spacetime described by quantum field theory [2].

[1] Juan Martin Maldacena (1998). “The Large N Limit of Superconformal Field Theories and Supergravity“. Adv. Theor. Math. Phys, 1998

[2] Jacob D. Bekenstein, “Information in the Holographic Universe“, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 2003

Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev SYK model

SYK presents an example of an exactly solvable quantum mechanical system serving as a bridge between several areas of theoretical physics [2]. Its Hamiltonian equation reads:

[2] Lantagne-Hurtubise, Li, Franz, “Family of Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models motivated by experimental considerations“, Physics Review, 2018

Entanglement Space-time Holographic EtSH

[1] “Entanglement and Teleportation“, Universe review website

Quantum Holopedia Global Scaling Theory


Quantum Holopedia ~ Artilect Quant GST

Global Scaling Theory

Logarithmic scale invariance

To say that that something is scale in variant is to say that its properties do not change when we increase or decrease (scale) it, in other words, scale invariance represents universality across a given dimension.

The world we live in is constructed based on logarithmic scale invariance. This can be observed in many disciplines like in Physics [Feynman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1969, Bjorken, Phys. Rev., 1969, Shnoll, Nauka, 1067, Shnoll, Physics Uspekji 41, 1998], Seismicity [Gutenberg, Princeton University Press, 1954], Biology [Chislenko, Moskow University Press, 1981, Schmidt-Nielsen, Cambridge University Press, 1984, Ahirmunsky, Nauka, 1982], Neurophysiology [Weber-Fechener Law], Mathematics and even Technology [Müller, Volgograd Institute of Technology, 1987, Müller, Volgograd-Sofia, 1989].

Proton resonances

References

[1] Hartmut Müller. “Global Scaling Theory“, 2008

Conductive polymers as artificial neurons

Quantum Computation in the Brain


Quantum Holopedia ~ Quantum Computation in the Brain. Posner molecule, Ca9(PO4)6, with S6 symmetry [Swift et al. 2018]


Two Posner molecules in a bcc arrangement [Fisher 2015]

Formation of quibits inside the brain
Courtesy of Lucy Reading-Ikkanda

Quantum Computation in the Brain

Computers as we know them today operate on the basic information unit called bit which can be represented as either 0 or 1, or in other words, as false or true. This means that in can carry only one of two values. On the other hand, quantum computers perform their operations using quantum bits or qubits. Qubit is a two-state quantum system that can exist in quantum superposition of two independent quantum states.

One of the ways to physically implement qubits is using particle’s spin. Most commonly used in quantum computations are fermions with Spin-½, they can be electrons, nuclei or the whole atoms. The important characteristic of a qubit is that it has to remain in the state of quantum coherence unaffected by the environment. So far the methods to obtain and sustain qubit have been accomplished under strict laboratory conditions, usually in extremely low temperatures and in vacuum shielded from electric and magnetic fields.

It would seem unlikely that the such conditions could exist in the human body, however, a team of scientists led by Matthew Fisher are investigating such possibility of qubits existing in human brain and involved in quantum computation there. They focused on phosphorus atoms as the only biological elements other that hydrogen that have a half-integer spin. Their finding was that although phosphorus atom by itself could not stay in quantum coherence for long, it on occasion joins clusters called Posner molecules, a form of amorphous calcium phosphate in the chemical formula of Ca9(PO4)6. These clusters encapsulate phosphorus atoms helping them preserve the coherence time.

Very interesting part of their research was the introduction of impurities in the Posner cluster such that cation f.ex. Fe2+ or Mg2+ replaces the central Ca2+ that will have significant effect on the spin state of the phosphorus.

Potential applications they propose include liquid-state NMR quantum computation and medical imaging.

Swift et al., “Posner molecules: From atomic structure to nuclear spins”, 2018

Fisher, “Quantum cognition: The possibility of
processing with nuclear spins in the brain”
, 2015

Mancardi et al., “Detection of Posner’s clusters during calcium phosphate nucleation: a molecular dynamics study” [HTML], 2017